PHP 5.5.17 is available

utf8_encode

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

utf8_encodeEncodes an ISO-8859-1 string to UTF-8

Description

string utf8_encode ( string $data )

This function encodes the string data to UTF-8, and returns the encoded version. UTF-8 is a standard mechanism used by Unicode for encoding wide character values into a byte stream. UTF-8 is transparent to plain ASCII characters, is self-synchronized (meaning it is possible for a program to figure out where in the bytestream characters start) and can be used with normal string comparison functions for sorting and such. PHP encodes UTF-8 characters in up to four bytes, like this:

UTF-8 encoding
bytes bits representation
1 7 0bbbbbbb
2 11 110bbbbb 10bbbbbb
3 16 1110bbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb
4 21 11110bbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb
Each b represents a bit that can be used to store character data.

Parameters

data

An ISO-8859-1 string.

Return Values

Returns the UTF-8 translation of data.

See Also

  • utf8_decode() - Converts a string with ISO-8859-1 characters encoded with UTF-8 to single-byte ISO-8859-1

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User Contributed Notes 63 notes

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28
deceze at gmail dot com
3 years ago
Please note that utf8_encode only converts a string encoded in ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8. A more appropriate name for it would be "iso88591_to_utf8". If your text is not encoded in  ISO-8859-1, you do not need this function. If your text is already in UTF-8, you do not need this function. In fact, applying this function to text that is not encoded in ISO-8859-1 will most likely simply garble that text.

If you need to convert text from any encoding to any other encoding, look at iconv() instead.
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4
Anonymous
8 years ago
// Reads a file story.txt ascii (as typed on keyboard)
// converts it to Georgian character using utf8 encoding
// if I am correct(?) just as it should be when typed on Georgian computer
// it outputs it as an html file
//
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.html
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.php
// http://www.comweb.nl/story.txt

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>keys to unicode code</TITLE>

// this meta tag is needed
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" >

// note the sylfean font seems to be standard installed on Windows XP
// It supports Georgian

<style TYPE="text/css">
<!--
body {font-family:sylfaen; }
-->
</style>
</HEAD>

<BODY>

<?
$eng
=array(97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,
112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,87,82,84,83,
67,74,90);
$geo=array(4304,4305,4330,4307,4308,4324,4306,4336,4312,4335,4313,
4314,4315,4316,4317,4318,4325,4320,4321,4322,4323,4309,
4332,4334,4327,4310,4333,4326,4311,4328,4329,4319,4331,
91,93,59,39,44,46,96);

$fc=file("story.txt");
foreach(
$fc as $line)
{
  
$spacestart=1;
   for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($line); $i+=1)
   {
     
$character=ord(substr($line,$i,1));
     
$found=0;
      for (
$k=0; $k<count($eng); $k+=1)
      {
         if (
$eng[$k]==$character)
         {
             print
code2utf( $geo[$k] );
            
$found=1;
         }
      }
      if (
$found==0)
      {
         if (
$character==126 || $character==32 || $character==10 || $character==9)
         {
            if (
$character==9)  { print '&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;'; }
            if (
$character==10) { print "<BR>\n"; }
            if (
$character==32)
            {
               if (
$spacestart==1) {print '&nbsp;'; } else { print " "; }
            }
            if (
$character==126){ print "~";      }
         } else
         {
            print
substr($line,$i,1);
         }
      }
      if (
$character!=32) { $spacestart=0; }
   }
}

/**
* Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
* Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
*
* @param int $num
* @return utf8char
*/
function code2utf($num)
{
   if(
$num<128)return chr($num);
   if(
$num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if(
$num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if(
$num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
   return
'';
}
?>

</BODY>
</HTML>
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11
Oscar Broman
2 years ago
Walk through nested arrays/objects and utf8 encode all strings.

<?php
// Usage
class Foo {
    public
$somevar = 'whoop whoop';
}

$structure = array(
   
'object' => (object) array(
       
'entry' => 'hello wörld',
       
'another_array' => array(
           
'string',
           
1234,
           
'another string'
       
)
    ),
   
'string' => 'foo',
   
'foo_object' => new Foo
);

utf8_encode_deep($structure);

// $structure is now utf8 encoded
print_r($structure);

// The function
function utf8_encode_deep(&$input) {
    if (
is_string($input)) {
       
$input = utf8_encode($input);
    } else if (
is_array($input)) {
        foreach (
$input as &$value) {
           
utf8_encode_deep($value);
        }

        unset(
$value);
    } else if (
is_object($input)) {
       
$vars = array_keys(get_object_vars($input));

        foreach (
$vars as $var) {
           
utf8_encode_deep($input->$var);
        }
    }
}
?>
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5
emze at donazga dot net
7 years ago
/*
Every function seen so far is incomplete or resource consumpting. Here are two -- integer 2 utf sequence (i3u) and utf sequence to integer (u3i). Below is a code snippet that checks well behavior at the range boundaries.

Someday they might be hardcoded into PHP...
*/

function i3u($i) { // returns UCS-16 or UCS-32 to UTF-8 from an integer
  $i=(int)$i; // integer?
  if ($i<0) return false; // positive?
  if ($i<=0x7f) return chr($i); // range 0
  if (($i & 0x7fffffff) <> $i) return '?'; // 31 bit?
  if ($i<=0x7ff) return chr(0xc0 | ($i >> 6)) . chr(0x80 | ($i & 0x3f));
  if ($i<=0xffff) return chr(0xe0 | ($i >> 12)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x1fffff) return chr(0xf0 | ($i >> 18)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x3ffffff) return chr(0xf8 | ($i >> 24)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  return chr(0xfc | ($i >> 30)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 24) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
}

function u3i($s,$strict=1) { // returns integer on valid UTF-8 seq, NULL on empty, else FALSE
  // NOT strict: takes only DATA bits, present or not; strict: length and bits checking
  if ($s=='') return NULL;
  $l=strlen($s); $o=ord($s{0});
  if ($o <= 0x7f && $l==1) return $o;
  if ($l>6 && $strict) return false;
  if ($strict) for ($i=1;$i<$l;$i++) if (ord($s{$i}) > 0xbf || ord($s{$i})< 0x80) return false;
  if ($o < 0xc2) return false; // no-go even if strict=0
  if ($o <= 0xdf && ($l=2 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x1f) << 6 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xef && ($l=3 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x0f) << 12 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 6
     |  (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xf7 && ($l=4 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x07) << 18 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfb && ($l=5 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x03) << 24 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 18
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 12 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfd && ($l=6 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x01) << 30 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 24
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 18 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{5}) & 0x3f));
  return false;
}

// boundary behavior checking
$do=array(0x7f,0x7ff,0xffff,0x1fffff,0x3ffffff,0x7fffffff);
foreach ($do as $ii) for ($i=$ii;$i<=$ii+1; $i++) {
  $o=i3u($i);
  for ($j=0;$j<strlen($o);$j++) print "O[$j]=" . sprintf('%08b',ord($o{$j})) . ", ";
  print "c=$i, o=[$o].\n";
  print "Back: [$o] => [" . u3i($o) . "]\n";
}
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5
James Cundle
8 years ago
I had some difficulty finding a way to easily write UTF-8 files with the byte order mark included. This is the simple solution I have come up with:

<?php
function writeUTF8File($filename,$content) {
       
$dhandle=fopen($filename,"w");
       
# Now UTF-8 - Add byte order mark
       
fwrite($dhandle, pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf));
       
fwrite($dhandle,$content);
       
fclose($dhandle);
}
?>

When you read the file back in using fopen, the BOM will also be there. To remove it, I also wrote the following function:

<?php
function removeBOM($str=""){
        if(
substr($str, 0,3) == pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf)) {
               
$str=substr($str, 3);
        }
        return
$str;
}
?>
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3
mailing at jcn50 dot com
8 years ago
I recommend using this alternative for every language:

$new=mb_convert_encoding($s,"UTF-8","auto");

Don't forget to set all your pages to "utf-8" encoding, otherwise just use HTML entities.

jcn50.
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4
rocketman
8 years ago
If you are looking for a function to replace special characters with the hex-utf-8 value (e.g. für Webservice-Security/WSS4J compliancy) you might use this:

$textstart = "Größe";
$utf8 ='';
$max = strlen($txt);

for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {

if ($txt{i} == "&"){
$neu = "&x26;";
}
elseif ((ord($txt{$i}) < 32) or (ord($txt{$i}) > 127)){
$neu = urlencode(utf8_encode($txt{$i}));
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;&#x\3;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)#','&#x\1;',$neu);
}
else {
$neu = $txt{$i};
}
       
$utf8 .= $neu;
} // for $i

$textnew = $utf8;

In this example $textnew will be "Gr&#xC3;&#xB6;&#xC3;&#x9F;e"
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2
sadikkeskin at hotmail dot com
7 years ago
i wrote a function to convert encoding utf8 to iso-8859-9. This function is very useful if you want to use this for ajax.
you can apply same way for other languages.
<?
function str_encode ($string,$to="iso-8859-9",$from="utf8") {
    if(
$to=="iso-8859-9" && $from=="utf8"){
       
$str_array = array(
      
chr(196).chr(177) => chr(253),
      
chr(196).chr(176) => chr(221),
      
chr(195).chr(182) => chr(246),
      
chr(195).chr(150) => chr(214),
      
chr(195).chr(167) => chr(231),
      
chr(195).chr(135) => chr(199),
      
chr(197).chr(159) => chr(254),
      
chr(197).chr(158) => chr(222),
      
chr(196).chr(159) => chr(240),
      
chr(196).chr(158) => chr(208),
      
chr(195).chr(188) => chr(252),
      
chr(195).chr(156) => chr(220)
       );
       return
str_replace(array_keys($str_array), array_values($str_array), $string);
   
    }   
    return
$string;
}
?>
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5
bastianschwarz t live punkt de
3 years ago
My version for converting ISO array keys to utf8:

<?php
function convertArrayKeysToUtf8(array $array) {
   
$convertedArray = array();
    foreach(
$array as $key => $value) {
      if(!
mb_check_encoding($key, 'UTF-8')) $key = utf8_encode($key);
      if(
is_array($value)) $value = $this->convertArrayKeysToUtf8($value);

     
$convertedArray[$key] = $value;
    }
    return
$convertedArray;
  }
?>
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2
bisqwit at iki dot fi
9 years ago
For reference, it may be insightful to point out that:
  utf8_encode($s)
is actually identical to:
  recode_string('latin1..utf8', $s)
and:
  iconv('iso-8859-1', 'utf-8', $s)
That is, utf8_encode is a specialized case of character set conversions.

If your string to be converted to utf-8 is something other than iso-8859-1 (such as iso-8859-2 (Polish/Croatian)), you should use recode_string() or iconv() instead rather than trying to devise complex str_replace statements.
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2
a dot rueedlinger at gmail dot com
1 year ago
If you need a function which converts a string array into a utf8 encoded string array then this function might be useful for you:

<?php
function utf8_string_array_encode(&$array){
   
$func = function(&$value,&$key){
        if(
is_string($value)){
           
$value = utf8_encode($value);
        }
        if(
is_string($key)){
           
$key = utf8_encode($key);
        }
        if(
is_array($value)){
           
utf8_string_array_encode($value);
        }
    };
   
array_walk($array,$func);
    return
$array;
}
?>
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2
Yumok
4 years ago
Avoiding use of preg_match to detect if utf8_encode is needed:

<?php
                $string
= $string_input; // avoid being destructive

               
$string = preg_replace("#[\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]#"        ,"",$string);         // ASCII
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]#"            ,"",$string);             // non-overlong 2-byte
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]#"    ,"",$string);     // excluding overlongs
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // straight 3-byte
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]#"    ,"",$string);     // excluding surrogates
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // planes 1-3
               
$string = preg_replace("#[\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}#"    ,"",$string);     //  planes 4-15
               
$string = preg_replace("#\xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}#","",$string);     // plane 16

               
$rc = ($string == ""?true:false);
?>
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2
mrezair at azarbod dot com
5 years ago
I found this little function very useful in fixing strings that are not in utf-8 but need be converted

<?php
// Fixes the encoding to uf8
function fixEncoding($in_str)
{
 
$cur_encoding = mb_detect_encoding($in_str) ;
  if(
$cur_encoding == "UTF-8" && mb_check_encoding($in_str,"UTF-8"))
    return
$in_str;
  else
    return
utf8_encode($in_str);
}
// fixEncoding
?>
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1
suttichai at ceforce dot com
9 years ago
This function I use convert Thai font (iso-8859-11) to UTF-8. For my case, It work properly. Please try to use this function if you have a problem to convert charset iso-8859-11 to UTF-8.

function iso8859_11toUTF8($string) {
 
     if ( ! ereg("[\241-\377]", $string) )
         return $string;

     $iso8859_11 = array(
"\xa1" => "\xe0\xb8\x81",
"\xa2" => "\xe0\xb8\x82",
"\xa3" => "\xe0\xb8\x83",
"\xa4" => "\xe0\xb8\x84",
"\xa5" => "\xe0\xb8\x85",
"\xa6" => "\xe0\xb8\x86",
"\xa7" => "\xe0\xb8\x87",
"\xa8" => "\xe0\xb8\x88",
"\xa9" => "\xe0\xb8\x89",
"\xaa" => "\xe0\xb8\x8a",
"\xab" => "\xe0\xb8\x8b",
"\xac" => "\xe0\xb8\x8c",
"\xad" => "\xe0\xb8\x8d",
"\xae" => "\xe0\xb8\x8e",
"\xaf" => "\xe0\xb8\x8f",
"\xb0" => "\xe0\xb8\x90",
"\xb1" => "\xe0\xb8\x91",
"\xb2" => "\xe0\xb8\x92",
"\xb3" => "\xe0\xb8\x93",
"\xb4" => "\xe0\xb8\x94",
"\xb5" => "\xe0\xb8\x95",
"\xb6" => "\xe0\xb8\x96",
"\xb7" => "\xe0\xb8\x97",
"\xb8" => "\xe0\xb8\x98",
"\xb9" => "\xe0\xb8\x99",
"\xba" => "\xe0\xb8\x9a",
"\xbb" => "\xe0\xb8\x9b",
"\xbc" => "\xe0\xb8\x9c",
"\xbd" => "\xe0\xb8\x9d",
"\xbe" => "\xe0\xb8\x9e",
"\xbf" => "\xe0\xb8\x9f",
"\xc0" => "\xe0\xb8\xa0",
"\xc1" => "\xe0\xb8\xa1",
"\xc2" => "\xe0\xb8\xa2",
"\xc3" => "\xe0\xb8\xa3",
"\xc4" => "\xe0\xb8\xa4",
"\xc5" => "\xe0\xb8\xa5",
"\xc6" => "\xe0\xb8\xa6",
"\xc7" => "\xe0\xb8\xa7",
"\xc8" => "\xe0\xb8\xa8",
"\xc9" => "\xe0\xb8\xa9",
"\xca" => "\xe0\xb8\xaa",
"\xcb" => "\xe0\xb8\xab",
"\xcc" => "\xe0\xb8\xac",
"\xcd" => "\xe0\xb8\xad",
"\xce" => "\xe0\xb8\xae",
"\xcf" => "\xe0\xb8\xaf",
"\xd0" => "\xe0\xb8\xb0",
"\xd1" => "\xe0\xb8\xb1",
"\xd2" => "\xe0\xb8\xb2",
"\xd3" => "\xe0\xb8\xb3",
"\xd4" => "\xe0\xb8\xb4",
"\xd5" => "\xe0\xb8\xb5",
"\xd6" => "\xe0\xb8\xb6",
"\xd7" => "\xe0\xb8\xb7",
"\xd8" => "\xe0\xb8\xb8",
"\xd9" => "\xe0\xb8\xb9",
"\xda" => "\xe0\xb8\xba",
"\xdf" => "\xe0\xb8\xbf",
"\xe0" => "\xe0\xb9\x80",
"\xe1" => "\xe0\xb9\x81",
"\xe2" => "\xe0\xb9\x82",
"\xe3" => "\xe0\xb9\x83",
"\xe4" => "\xe0\xb9\x84",
"\xe5" => "\xe0\xb9\x85",
"\xe6" => "\xe0\xb9\x86",
"\xe7" => "\xe0\xb9\x87",
"\xe8" => "\xe0\xb9\x88",
"\xe9" => "\xe0\xb9\x89",
"\xea" => "\xe0\xb9\x8a",
"\xeb" => "\xe0\xb9\x8b",
"\xec" => "\xe0\xb9\x8c",
"\xed" => "\xe0\xb9\x8d",
"\xee" => "\xe0\xb9\x8e",
"\xef" => "\xe0\xb9\x8f",
"\xf0" => "\xe0\xb9\x90",
"\xf1" => "\xe0\xb9\x91",
"\xf2" => "\xe0\xb9\x92",
"\xf3" => "\xe0\xb9\x93",
"\xf4" => "\xe0\xb9\x94",
"\xf5" => "\xe0\xb9\x95",
"\xf6" => "\xe0\xb9\x96",
"\xf7" => "\xe0\xb9\x97",
"\xf8" => "\xe0\xb9\x98",
"\xf9" => "\xe0\xb9\x99",
"\xfa" => "\xe0\xb9\x9a",
"\xfb" => "\xe0\xb9\x9b"
);

     $string=strtr($string,$iso8859_11);
     return $string;
}

Suttichai Mesaard-www.ceforce.com
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2
rogeriogirodo at gmail dot com
5 years ago
This function may be useful do encode array keys and values [and checks first to see if it's already in UTF format]:

<?php
public static function to_utf8($in)
{
        if (
is_array($in)) {
            foreach (
$in as $key => $value) {
               
$out[to_utf8($key)] = to_utf8($value);
            }
        } elseif(
is_string($in)) {
            if(
mb_detect_encoding($in) != "UTF-8")
                return
utf8_encode($in);
            else
                return
$in;
        } else {
            return
$in;
        }
        return
$out;
}
?>

Hope this may help.

[NOTE BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Original function written by (cmyk777 AT gmail DOT com) on 28-JAN-09.]
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3
www.tricinty.com
6 years ago
<?php
   
/**
    * Encodes an ISO-8859-1 mixed variable to UTF-8 (PHP 4, PHP 5 compat)
    * @param    mixed    $input An array, associative or simple
    * @param    boolean  $encode_keys optional
    * @return    mixed     ( utf-8 encoded $input)
    */

   
function utf8_encode_mix($input, $encode_keys=false)
    {
        if(
is_array($input))
        {
           
$result = array();
            foreach(
$input as $k => $v)
            {               
               
$key = ($encode_keys)? utf8_encode($k) : $k;
               
$result[$key] = utf8_encode_mix( $v, $encode_keys);
            }
        }
        else
        {
           
$result = utf8_encode($input);
        }

        return
$result;
    }
?>
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1
aktionimskript at gmx dot net
9 years ago
if you want to put variables as parameter in a flashfile, i prefer using to convert the string with utf8_encode() [or preg_replace, or iconv] and after this i encode it with urlencode();

<?php
     $yourstring
="yourstring";
    
$str_utf8=utf8_encode($yourstring);
    
$str_encoded=urlencode($str_utf8);
     echo
"<script language='javascript'>";
     echo
"parameterForFlash='".$str_encoded."';";
     echo
"</script>";
?>

now you can use the variable (parameterForFlash) in your javascript (plugindetection), that writes the flash object/embed.
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0
powtac 4t gmx d0t de
3 years ago
I tried a lot of things, but this seems to be the final fail save method to convert any string to proper UTF-8.

<?php
function _convert($content) {
    if(!
mb_check_encoding($content, 'UTF-8')
        OR !(
$content === mb_convert_encoding(mb_convert_encoding($content, 'UTF-32', 'UTF-8' ), 'UTF-8', 'UTF-32'))) {

       
$content = mb_convert_encoding($content, 'UTF-8');

        if (
mb_check_encoding($content, 'UTF-8')) {
           
// log('Converted to UTF-8');
       
} else {
           
// log('Could not converted to UTF-8');
       
}
    }
    return
$content;
}
?>
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0
darkenergy at hispeed dot ch
4 years ago
to encode a string only if it is not yet UTF-8, the most elegant solution i found is:

<?php
//$s is a string from whatever source
mb_detect_encoding($s, "UTF-8") == "UTF-8" ? : $s = utf8_encode($s);
?>

hope it helps
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0
bitseeker
5 years ago
...or just use this simple piece of code to check valid utf-8 string:

<?php
   
/**
     * Returns true if $string is valid UTF-8 and false otherwise.
     *
     * @since        1.14
     * @param [mixed] $string     string to be tested
     * @subpackage
     */
   
function is_utf8($string) {
      
       
// From http://w3.org/International/questions/qa-forms-utf-8.html
       
return preg_match('%^(?:
              [\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]            # ASCII
            | [\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]             # non-overlong 2-byte
            |  \xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding overlongs
            | [\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}  # straight 3-byte
            |  \xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding surrogates
            |  \xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # planes 1-3
            | [\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}          # planes 4-15
            |  \xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # plane 16
        )*$%xs'
, $string);
      
    }
?>
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Anonymous
7 years ago
I just read what I wrote, sorry for the typos it was a long day:

here's the rewritten code:

xml_tpl.php
<?php
    header
("Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1");
    print
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" ?>\n";
   
$names=array('jack','bob','vanessa','catherine','valerie');
?>
<parent>
<?php foreach($names as $name) {?>
    <child name="<?php print $name?>" />
<?php } ?>
</parent>

<?php
function create_xml(){
   
ob_start();
    include
"xml_tpl.php";
   
$trapped_content=ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
$file_path= "./somefile.xml";
   
$file_handle=fopen($file_path,'w');
   
fwrite($file_handle,utf8_encode($trapped_content));
}

?>
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0
Janci
8 years ago
I was searching for a function similar to Javascript's unescape(). In most cases it is OK to use url_decode() function but not if you've got UTF characters in the strings. They are converted into %uXXXX entities that url_decode() cannot handle.
I googled the net and found a function which actualy converts these entities into HTML entities (&#xxx;) that your browser can show correctly. If you're OK with that, the function can be found here: http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps

But it was not OK with me because I needed a string in my charset to make some comparations and other stuff. So I have modified the above function and in conjuction with code2utf() function mentioned in some other note here, I have managed to achieve my goal:

<?php
/**
* Function converts an Javascript escaped string back into a string with specified charset (default is UTF-8).
* Modified function from http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps
*
* @param string $source escaped with Javascript's escape() function
* @param string $iconv_to destination character set will be used as second paramether in the iconv function. Default is UTF-8.
* @return string
*/
function unescape($source, $iconv_to = 'UTF-8') {
   
$decodedStr = '';
   
$pos = 0;
   
$len = strlen ($source);
    while (
$pos < $len) {
       
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
        if (
$charAt == '%') {
           
$pos++;
           
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
            if (
$charAt == 'u') {
               
// we got a unicode character
               
$pos++;
               
$unicodeHexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 4);
               
$unicode = hexdec ($unicodeHexVal);
               
$decodedStr .= code2utf($unicode);
               
$pos += 4;
            }
            else {
               
// we have an escaped ascii character
               
$hexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 2);
               
$decodedStr .= chr (hexdec ($hexVal));
               
$pos += 2;
            }
        }
        else {
           
$decodedStr .= $charAt;
           
$pos++;
        }
    }

    if (
$iconv_to != "UTF-8") {
       
$decodedStr = iconv("UTF-8", $iconv_to, $decodedStr);
    }
   
    return
$decodedStr;
}

/**
* Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
* Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
*
* @param int $num
* @return utf8char
*/
function code2utf($num){
    if(
$num<128)return chr($num);
    if(
$num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
    return
'';
}
?>
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0
JF Sebastian
9 years ago
The following Perl regular expression tests if a string is well-formed Unicode UTF-8 (Broken up after each | since long lines are not permitted here. Please join as a single line, no spaces, before use.):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc2-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
\xe0[\xa0-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe1-\xec][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
\xed[\x80-\x9f][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xee-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
f0[\x90-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf1-\xf3][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
\xf4[\x80-\x8f][\x80-\xbf]{2})*$

NOTE: This strictly follows the Unicode standard 4.0, as described in chapter 3.9, table 3-6, "Well-formed UTF-8 byte sequences" ( http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf#G31703 ).

ISO-10646, a super-set of Unicode, uses UTF-8 (there called "UCS", see http://www.unicode.org/faq/utf_bom.html#1 ) in a relaxed variant that supports a 31-bit space encoded into up to six bytes instead of Unicode's 21 bits in up to four bytes. To check for ISO-10646 UTF-8, use the following Perl regular expression (again, broken up, see above):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc0-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe0-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf0-\xf7][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
[\xf8-\xfb][\x80-\xbf]{4}|
[\xfc-\xfd][\x80-\xbf]{5})*$

The following function may be used with above expressions for a quick UTF-8 test, e.g. to distinguish ISO-8859-1-data from UTF-8-data if submitted from a <form accept-charset="utf-8,iso-8859-1" method=..>.

function is_utf8($string) {
   return (preg_match('/[insert regular expression here]/', $string) === 1);
}
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0
Denis G.
9 years ago
Sniplet to convert ASCII coded text to UTF-8:

$text= preg_replace ('/([\x80-\xff])/se', "pack (\"C*\", (ord ($1) >> 6) | 0xc0, (ord ($1) & 0x3f) | 0x80)", $text);
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0
anonymous at anonymous dot com
9 years ago
A few bugs in your example code:

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
}
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0
schofei at yahoo dot de
9 years ago
regarding the above code2utf function...

> romans at void dot lv
> 02-Oct-2002 09:59
> Here is optimized function which converts
> binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string....

Thanks for providing your nice conversion code, however due to some missing parenthesis 4-byte utf-8 chars are not converted properly.

Here is a corrected version of the code2utf function:

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
}

regards
Scho Fei
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0
hrpeters (at) gmx (dot) net
9 years ago
// Validate Unicode UTF-8 Version 4
// This function takes as reference the table 3.6 found at http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf
// It also flags overlong bytes as error

function is_validUTF8($str)
{
    // values of -1 represent disalloweded values for the first bytes in current UTF-8
    static $trailing_bytes = array (
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
        2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3,3,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1
    );

    $ups = unpack('C*', $str);
    if (!($aCnt = count($ups))) return true; // Empty string *is* valid UTF-8
    for ($i = 1; $i <= $aCnt;)
    {
        if (!($tbytes = $trailing_bytes[($b1 = $ups[$i++])])) continue;
        if ($tbytes == -1) return false;
       
        $first = true;
        while ($tbytes > 0 && $i <= $aCnt)
        {
            $cbyte = $ups[$i++];
            if (($cbyte & 0xC0) != 0x80) return false;
           
            if ($first)
            {
                switch ($b1)
                {
                    case 0xE0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0xA0) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xED:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x9F) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0x90) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF4:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x8F) return false;
                        break;
                    default:
                        break;
                }
                $first = false;
            }
            $tbytes--;
        }
        if ($tbytes) return false; // incomplete sequence at EOS
    }       
    return true;
}
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Mark AT modernbill DOT com
9 years ago
If you haven't guessed already: If the UTF-8 character has no representation in the ISO-8859-1 codepage, a ? will be returned. You might want to wrap a function around this to make sure you aren't saving a bunch of ???? into your database.
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steven -at- acko -dot- net
10 years ago
Note that you should only use utf8_encode() on ISO-8859-1 data, and not on data using the Windows-1252 codepage. Microsoft's Windows-1252 codepage contains ISO-8859-1, but it includes several characters in the range 0x80-0x9F whose codepoints in Unicode do not match the byte's value (in Unicode, codepoints U+80 - U+9F are unassigned).

utf8_encode() simply assumes the bytes integer value is the codepoint number in Unicode.

E.g. in 1252, byte 0x80 is the euro sign, which is U+20AC. The same goes for curly quotes, em dashes, etc.

utf8_encode() will convert 0x80 into U+0080 (an unassigned codepoint) rather than U+20AC.

To convert 1252 to UTF-8, use iconv, recode or mbstring.
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Net Raven
10 years ago
I often need to convert multi language text sent to me for use in websites and other apps into UTF8 encoded so I can insert it into source code and databases.

I knocked up a small web page with its charset set to UTF8 then set it up so I can paste from the original doc (eg word or excel) and have the page return the UTF8 encoded version.

Of course the browser will convert the unicode to UTF8 for you as part of the submit (I use IE5 or better for this) then all you have to do in the PHP is encode the UTF8 so the browser will show it in its raw form.

Its a bit bulky but I just convert ALL character to html numbered entities (brute force and ignorance does it again.)

I've used this to encode everything from Hebrew to Japanese without problems

<?
header
("Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8");
$code = (get_magic_quotes_gpc())?stripslashes($GLOBALS[code]):$GLOBALS[code];
?>
<html>
<head>
    <title>UTF8 ENCODER PAGE</title>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
</head>
<body>
<form method=post action="?seed=<?=time()?>">
    Original Unicode<br />
    <textarea name="code" cols="80" rows="10"><?=$code?></textarea><br />
    Encoded UTF8<br />
    <textarea name="encd" cols="80" rows="10"><?
       
for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($code); $i++) {
            echo
'&#'.ord(substr($code,$i,1));
        }
   
?></textarea><br />
    <input type="submit" value="encode">
</form>
</body>
</html>
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0
lorro at lorro dot wigner dot bme dot hu
10 years ago
Good news is that utf8_encode (like UTF-8) passes '<', '>', '/', '\'', '"', etc., so you are free to utf8_encode complete blocks of html text that includes tags.
Bad news is that UTF-8 is stupid enough so that utf8_encode(utf8_encode($str)) != utf8_encode($str) in most of the cases. What you can do is write utf8_ensure like:

function utf8_ensure($str) {
    return seems_utf8($str)? $str: utf8_encode($str);
}

Comes handy when your view library tries to encode the same text multiple times.
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0
bmorel at ssi dot fr
10 years ago
Here is a simple function that can help, if you want to know if a string could be UTF-8 or not :

<?php
function seems_utf8($Str) {
for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($Str); $i++) {
  if (
ord($Str[$i]) < 0x80) $n=0; # 0bbbbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xE0) == 0xC0) $n=1; # 110bbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xE0) $n=2; # 1110bbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xF0) $n=3; # 1111bbbb
 
else return false; # Does not match any model
 
for ($j=0; $j<$n; $j++) { # n octets that match 10bbbbbb follow ?
  
if ((++$i == strlen($Str)) || ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xC0) != 0x80)) return false;
  }
}
return
true;
}
?>
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0
Karen
10 years ago
Re the previous post about converting GB2312 code to Unicode code which displayed the following function:

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!
trim($gb))
    return
$gb;
  
$filename="gb2312.txt";
  
$tmp=file($filename);
  
$codetable=array();
   while(list(
$key,$value)=each($tmp))
   
$codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
  
$utf="";
   while(
$gb)
    {
      if (
ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
       
$this=substr($gb,0,2);
       
$gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
       
$utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
     
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
     
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return
$utf;
}
?>

I found that a small change was needed in the code to properly handle latin characters embedded in the middle of gb2312 text, as when the text includes a URL or email address. Just reverse the two lines in the part of the statement above that handles ord vals !>127.

Change:

$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);

to:

$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));

In the original function, the first latin chacter was dropped and it was not converting the first non-latin character after the latin text (everything was shifted one character too far to the right). Reversing those two lines makes it work correctly in every example I have tried.

Also, the source of the gb2312.txt file needed for this to work has changed. You can find it a couple places:

http://tcl.apache.org/sources/tcl/tools/encoding/gb2312.txt
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
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-1
akam
6 years ago
<?php
// Author akam at akameng dot com
// Support 6 bit
function UTF_to_Unicode($input, $array=False) {

$bit1  = pow(64, 0);
$bit2  = pow(64, 1);
$bit3  = pow(64, 2);
$bit4  = pow(64, 3);
$bit5  = pow(64, 4);
$bit6  = pow(64, 5);

$value = '';
$val   = array();

for(
$i=0; $i< strlen( $input ); $i++){

    
$ints = ord ( $input[$i] );
    
    
$z     = ord ( $input[$i] );
    
$y     = ord ( $input[$i+1] ) - 128;
    
$x     = ord ( $input[$i+2] ) - 128;
    
$w     = ord ( $input[$i+3] ) - 128;
    
$v     = ord ( $input[$i+4] ) - 128;
    
$u     = ord ( $input[$i+5] ) - 128;

     if(
$ints >= 0 && $ints <= 127 ){
       
// 1 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.($z * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }
     if(
$ints >= 192 && $ints <= 223 ){
       
// 2 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-192) * $bit2 + $y * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }   
     if(
$ints >= 224 && $ints <= 239 ){
       
// 3 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-224) * $bit3 + $y * $bit2 + $x * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }    
     if(
$ints >= 240 && $ints <= 247 ){
       
// 4 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-240) * $bit4 + $y * $bit3 +
$x * $bit2 + $w * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;       
     }    
     if(
$ints >= 248 && $ints <= 251 ){
       
// 5 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-248) * $bit5 + $y * $bit4
+ $x * $bit3 + $w * $bit2 + $v * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;  
     }
     if(
$ints == 252 && $ints == 253 ){
       
// 6 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-252) * $bit6 + $y * $bit5
+ $x * $bit4 + $w * $bit3 + $v * $bit2 + $u * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }
     if(
$ints == 254 || $ints == 255 ){
       echo
'Wrong Result!<br>';
     }
    
}

if(
$array === False ){
    return
$unicode = $value;
}
if(
$array === True ){
    
$val     = str_replace('&#', '', $value);
    
$val     = explode(';', $val);
    
$len = count($val);
     unset(
$val[$len-1]);
    
     return
$unicode = $val;
}

}


function
Unicode_to_UTF( $input, $array=TRUE){

    
$utf = '';
    if(!
is_array($input)){
      
$input     = str_replace('&#', '', $input);
      
$input     = explode(';', $input);
      
$len = count($input);
       unset(
$input[$len-1]);
    }
    for(
$i=0; $i < count($input); $i++){
   
    if (
$input[$i] <128 ){
      
$byte1 = $input[$i];
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=128 && $input[$i] <=2047 ){
   
      
$byte1 = 192 + (int)($input[$i] / 64);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=2048 && $input[$i] <=65535){
   
      
$byte1 = 224 + (int)($input[$i] / 4096);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=65536 && $input[$i] <=2097151){
   
      
$byte1 = 240 + (int)($input[$i] / 262144);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=2097152 && $input[$i] <=67108863){
   
      
$byte1 = 248 + (int)($input[$i] / 16777216);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 262144) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte5 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4).chr($byte5);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=67108864 && $input[$i] <=2147483647){
   
      
$byte1 = 252 + ($input[$i] / 1073741824);
      
$byte2 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 16777216) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 262144) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte5 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte6 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4).chr($byte5).chr($byte6);
    }
   }
   return
$utf;
}
?>
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-1
klein at buchung-24 dot de
6 years ago
IF you don´t use the function from ethan dot nelson at ltd dot org in a class, you´ll get an error, so please try

function utf_prepare(&$array)
{
    foreach($array AS $key => &$value)
    {
        if (is_array($value))
        {
            utf_prepare($value);
        } else
        {
            $value = utf8_encode($value);
        }
    }
}
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-1
www.qaiser.net
6 years ago
that isUTF8 function is a killer...

wouldn't something like

if ( preg_match( "~(\x00[\x80-\xff]|[\x00-\x07][\x00-\xff]~", $string ) ) { /* is utf */ };

be a lot more efficient? it doesn't take into account all the ranges, but it has to be a better method and a simple start since it'll quit on the first successful match. think of encoding and decoding a 1mb string--not good. i'm having to work with +20 meg xml files.
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0
artem at w510 dot tm dot odessa dot ua
11 years ago
Loading variables in flash

you can lost a lot of hours if your charset is not iso-88951 and you cant' see your characters in flash

you must use iconv instead with your codepage
(for example windows-1251 for ukrainian, russian)

$fw = fopen("flash_input.txt", "w");
if( $fw )
{
    $utf = iconv("windows-1251","UTF-8",$variable_value);
    $out = 'variable_name='.$utf;
    fputs($fw, $out);
    fclose($fw);
}

and no urlecode is needed if you save data in file!
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mualem_i at hotmail dot com
11 years ago
Hebrew!! What a language. I had some trouble placing the Hebrew in a javascript based drop down menu, the text appeared as UTF8 so I made this function to overcome the problem (Not talking about efficiency)

function rtf_heb($string)
    {
    $array = split (" ",$string) ;
    foreach ($array as $VAL)
        {
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1488","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1489","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1490","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1491","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1492","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1493","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1494","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1495","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1496","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1497","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1499","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1500","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1502","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1504","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1505","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1506","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1508","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1510","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1511","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1512","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1513","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1514","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1498","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1507","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1503","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1501","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1509","",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace(";","",$VAL);
        $send_VAR .= $VAL." ";
       
        }
        return $send_VAR;
    }
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RoyLaw at 263 dot Net
11 years ago
There is a function for converting GB2312 code to Unicode code.It maybe useful for programming on XML/WML in non-English lanaguages.

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!
trim($gb))
    return
$gb;
  
$filename="gb2312.txt";
  
$tmp=file($filename);
  
$codetable=array();
   while(list(
$key,$value)=each($tmp))
   
$codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
  
$utf="";
   while(
$gb)
    {
      if (
ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
       
$this=substr($gb,0,2);
       
$gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
       
$utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
     
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
     
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return
$utf;
}
?>

This function requires a code list of gb2312,you can download it at
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
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0
sunish_mv at rediffmail dot com
11 years ago
/*Here I have a class that will convert ISCII (Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange) devnagiri (Hindi) string to unicode string. /*

<?php

 
class iscii2utf8 {

      var
$map;

      function
iscii2utf8() {

         
$this->map = array (
                  
"a0" =>  '63'  ,
                
"a1" => '2305' ,
                
"a2" => '2306' ,
                
"a3" => '2307' ,
                
"a4" => '2309' ,
                
"a5" => '2310' ,
                
"a6" => '2311' ,
                
"a7" => '2312' ,
                
"a8" => '2313' ,
                
"a9" => '2314' ,
                
"aa" => '2315' ,
                
"ab" => '2318' ,
                
"ac" => '2319' ,
                
"ad" => '2320' ,
                
"ae" => '2317' ,
                
"af" => '2322' ,
                
"b0" => '2323' ,
                
"b1" => '2324' ,
                
"b2" => '2321' ,
                
"b3" => '2325' ,
                
"b4" => '2326' ,
                
"b5" => '2327' ,
                
"b6" => '2328' ,
                
"b7" => '2329' ,
                
"b8" => '2330' ,
                
"b9" => '2331' ,
                
"ba" => '2332' ,
                
"bb" => '2333' ,
                
"bc" => '2334' ,
                
"bd" => '2335' ,
                
"be" => '2336' ,
                
"bf" => '2337' ,
                
"c0" => '2338' ,
                
"c1" => '2339' ,
                
"c2" => '2340' ,
                
"c3" => '2341' ,
                
"c4" => '2342' ,
                
"c5" => '2343' ,
                
"c6" => '2344' ,
                
"c7" => '2345' ,
                
"c8" => '2346' ,
                
"c9" => '2347' ,
                
"ca" => '2348' ,
                
"cb" => '2349' ,
                
"cc" => '2350' ,
                
"cd" => '2351' ,
                
"ce" => '2399' ,
                
"cf" => '2352' ,
                
"d0" => '2353' ,
                
"d1" => '2354' ,
                
"d2" => '2355' ,
                
"d3" => '2356' ,
                
"d4" => '2357' ,
                
"d5" => '2358' ,
                
"d6" => '2359' ,
                
"d7" => '2360' ,
                
"d8" => '2361' ,
                
"d9" =>  '63'  ,
                
"da" => '2366' ,
                
"db" => '2367' ,
                
"dc" => '2368' ,
                
"dd" => '2369' ,
                
"de" => '2370' ,
                
"df" => '2371' ,
                
"e0" => '2374' ,
                
"e1" => '2375' ,
                
"e2" => '2376' ,
                
"e3" => '2373' ,
                
"e4" => '2378' ,
                
"e5" => '2379' ,
                
"e6" => '2380' ,
                
"e7" => '2377' ,
                
"e8" => '2381' ,
                
"e9" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ea" => '2404' ,
                
"eb" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ec" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ed" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ee" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ef" =>  '63'  ,
                
"f0" =>  '63'  ,
                
"f1" => '2406' ,
                
"f2" => '2407' ,
                
"f3" => '2408' ,
                
"f4" => '2409' ,
                
"f5" => '2410' ,
                
"f6" => '2411' ,
                
"f7" => '2412' ,
                
"f8" => '2413' ,
                
"f9" => '2414' ,
                
"fa" => '2415' ,
                
"fb" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fc" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fd" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fe" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ff" =>  '63'  ,);
        }

        function
code2utf($num){

            
//Returns the utf string corresponding to the unicode value
             //courtesy - romans@void.lv

            
if($num<128)return chr($num);
             if(
$num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
             if(
$num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
             if(
$num<2097152)return chr($num>>18+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr(($num>>6)&63+128). chr($num&63+128);
             return
'';

        }

        function
convertstring($iscii) {
           
//Returs utf8 string equibalent of given iscii string
           
           
$str = "";
            for(
$i = 0; $i<strlen($iscii); $i++) {

               
$c = dechex(ord(substr($iscii,$i,1)));
                if (isset(
$this->map[$c] )) {
                   
$s = $this->code2utf($this->map[$c]);
                   
$str .= ($s == "?")?"":$s;
                    }
                else {
                  
$str .= substr($iscii,$i,1);
                   }

            }

            return
$str;
        }

    }

?>
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0
rbotzer at yahoo dot com
11 years ago
BTW, the 21-bit range is pretty old news.  Unicode 3.x uses a 31bit encoding scheme that allows for 2 billion characters.

I'll post an enhanced encoder soon.  In the meanwhile here's the current encoding scheme: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html#utf-8

Ronen
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0
webmaster at swisswebgroup dot com
11 years ago
if you try to pass data to a flash movie with the
actionscripts functions loadVars or sendAndLoad give this a try,
if you have problems with special chars like &auml; &ouml; ....

echo "&data1=".urlencode(utf8_encode(""))
    ."&data2=".urlencode(utf8_encode(""));

greets

js
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-1
ethan dot nelson at ltd dot org
6 years ago
This does the same thing as some of the posts below (minus the keys), but I thought I'd share anyway cause it is slightly more elegant.  Also, its a good example using references such that this could be used as a callback function.

  function utf_prepare(&$array) {

    foreach($array AS $key => &$value) {

      if (is_array($value)) {
        $this->utf_prepare($value);
      } else {
        $value = utf8_encode($value);
      }

    }

  }
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romans at void dot lv
11 years ago
Here is optimized function which converts binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string.

function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr($num>>18+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr(($num>>6)&63+128). chr($num&63+128);
  return '';
}
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dimitrisATccfDOTauthDOTgr
12 years ago
To make utf8_encode and utf8_decode support other than iso-8859-1 encodings, you can easily define your encoding in the PHP source.
In the file PHP_SOURCE/ext/xml/xml.c add the following code, for e.g. greek iso-8859-7:

DEFINE TWO NEW FUNCTIONS UP TOP:
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char);
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short);

AND THEN IMPLEMENT THEM BELOW:
/* {{{ xml_encode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map iso-8859-7 chars to Unicode chars */
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char c)
{
        if (c < 0x80) { /* low-ASCII, leave as is */
                return (unsigned short)c;
        } else { /* Greek character in high-ASCII */
                /* map to UCS greek range (U+0310..03ff) */
                /* assume that c < 0xff */
                return (unsigned short)(c + 720);
        }
}
/* }}} */

/* {{{ xml_decode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map Unicode chars to iso-8859-7 chars */
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short c)
{
        if (c < 0x100) { /* char in latin chart, leave as is */
                return (char)c;
        } else if (c > 0x030f && c < 0x0400) { /* char in greek chart */
                /* map back to ISO-8859-7 greek (high-ASCII) */
                return (char)(c - 720);
        } else { /* char not in latin or greek Unicode charts */
                /* return question mark character */
                return (char)('?');
        }
}
/* }}} */

These two work fine for greek iso-8859-7, but studying http://www.unicode.org/charts you
can implement mappings between unicode and other iso-8859-x quite easily.

In both functions (utf8_encode and utf8_decode), change the requested encoding to the one you prefer, e.g.

encoded = xml_utf8_encode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

decoded = xml_utf8_decode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

Make sure you add the new encoding
in the structure, by entering a new
row with the official name (ISO-8859-7), and the names of the
two functions you have just defined:
xml_encoding xml_encodings[] = {
        { "ISO-8859-1", xml_decode_iso_8859_1, xml_encode_iso_8859_1 },
        { "US-ASCII",   xml_decode_us_ascii,   xml_encode_us_ascii   },
        { "UTF-8",      NULL,                  NULL                  },
        { "ISO-8859-7", xml_decode_iso_8859_7, xml_encode_iso_8859_7 },
        { NULL,         NULL,                  NULL                  }
};

Finally, the following is probably not necessary, but I changed the default encoding (found in 2 spots in this file) to whatever encoding you prefer in your
pages, e.g.:
XML(default_encoding) = "ISO-8859-7";

This solution is a little messy,
since the utf8_encode function does not accept an argument for choosing the encoding method to use but hardwires the encoding method in the source code. Maybe PHP developers will provide this option in future releases. Until then, this is a quick and dirty solution that will work for
localized PHP pages.

Dimitris Daskopoulos
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Anonymous
12 years ago
For XML generation, if you want non-ASCII ISO-8859-1 characters within text and attributes, you don't absolutely need UTF-8 encoding:

The optional XML declaration can change the default encoding for characters from UTF-8 to ISO-8859-1:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" ?>

This can save a lot of PHP code if you just want to generate ISO-8859-1 text and attribute values...

XML specification requires that all parsers support both the UTF-8 encoding (by default), and the ISO-8859-1 character set. Other character sets may be supported also by specifying them in the encoding attribute of the leading XML declaration (but the target parser must support this character set to allow automatic conversion of the source text into Unicode character entities.
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-1
luka8088 at gmail dot com
7 years ago
simple HTML to UTF-8 conversion:

function html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    return preg_replace("/\\&\\#([0-9]{3,10})\\;/e", '_html_to_utf8("\\1")', $data);
    }

function _html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    if ($data > 127)
        {
        $i = 5;
        while (($i--) > 0)
            {
            if ($data != ($a = $data % ($p = pow(64, $i))))
                {
                $ret = chr(base_convert(str_pad(str_repeat(1, $i + 1), 8, "0"), 2, 10) + (($data - $a) / $p));
                for ($i; $i > 0; $i--)
                    $ret .= chr(128 + ((($data % pow(64, $i)) - ($data % ($p = pow(64, $i - 1)))) / $p));
                break;
                }
            }
        }
        else
        $ret = "&#$data;";
    return $ret;
    }

Example:
echo html_to_utf8("a b &#269; &#263; &#382; &#12371; &#12395; &#12385; &#12431; ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;");

Output:
a b č ć ž こ に ち わ ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;
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0
dutoit at NOSPAM dot abonder dot com
12 years ago
To write an XML element $title containing "exotic" (eg. non ASCII & ...) 2 solutions I found :
Fastest :
$xml .= "<title><![CDATA[" . $title ."]]></title>\n"

or cleanest :
$xml .= "<title>".utf8_encode(htmlspecialchars($title))."</title>\n"

After that, your xml can be parsed without errors.
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-1
hillar dot petersen at gmail dot com
7 years ago
If you are interested in recursively converting ISO-8859-1-encoded arrays into UTF-8, then this is one way to do it. Could use a small refactor though. (I used it to prepare some ISO-8859-1 arrays for json_encode. Note that for this to work your values and for associative arrays also your keys must be ISO-8859-1-encoded.)

<?php
/**
* (Recursively) utf8_encode each value in an array.
*
* @param array $array
* @return array utf8_encoded
*/

function utf8_encode_array($array)
{
  if (
is_array($array))
  {
   
$result_array = array();

    foreach(
$array as $key => $value)
    {

      if (
array_type($array) == "map")
      {
       
// encode both key and value

       
if (is_array($value))
        {
         
// recursion
         
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode_array($value);
        }
        else
        {
         
// no recursion
         
if (is_string($value))
          {
           
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode($value);
          }
          else
          {
           
// do not re-encode non-strings, just copy data
           
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = $value;
          }

        }

      }

      else if (
array_type($array) == "vector")
      {
       
// encode value only
       
       
if (is_array($value))
        {
         
// recursion
         
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode_array($value);
        }
        else
        {
         
// no recursion
         
         
if (is_string($value))
          {
           
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode($value);
          }
          else
          {
           
// do not re-encode non-strings, just copy data
           
$result_array[$key] = $value;
          }

        }

      }

    }

    return
$result_array;
  }

  return
false;     // argument is not an array, return false
}

/**
* Determines array type ("vector" or "map"). Returns false if not an array at all.
* (I hope a native function will be introduced in some future release of PHP, because
* this check is inefficient and quite costly in worst case scenario.)
*
* @param array $array The array to analyze
* @return string array type ("vector" or "map") or false if not an array
*/

function array_type($array)
{
  if (
is_array($array))
  {
   
$next = 0;

   
$return_value = "vector"// we have a vector until proved otherwise

   
foreach ($array as $key => $value)
    {

      if (
$key != $next)
      {
       
$return_value = "map"// we have a map
       
break;
      }

     
$next++;
    }
   
    return
$return_value;
  }

  return
false;    // not array
}
?>
up
-1
penda ekoka
7 years ago
creating utf-8 xml files:
this is something that has wasted a lot of my time, I hope this will spare you the headaches:

my method consists of creating an xml template that will look like this (this is probably optional, I'm sure you can use good ol' print or echo statements):

xml_tpl.php
<?php
header
("Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1");
print
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" ?>\n";
$names=array('jack','bob','vanessa','catherine','valerie');
?>
<parent>
<?php foreach($names as $name) {?>
    <child name="<?php print $name?>" />
<?php } ?>
</parent>
?>

from a function or a method I include the previous template and trap the outputted content in an output buffer. The buffured content is then inserted into a file:

<?php
function create_xml(){
   
ob_start();
    include
"xml_php.php";
   
$trapped_content=ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
$file_path= "./somefile.xml";
   
$file_handle=fopen($somefile,'w');
   
fwrite($file_handle,utf8_encode($trapped_content));
}

?>

Some side notes:
- note that the utf8_encode function goes inside the fwrite() function.
- when troubleshooting, make sure to transfer text file (xml included) and scripts in ascii mode when using ftp. For some unknown reason my ftp client did not have xml set as an ascii transfer candidate and was automatically tranfering them in binary. That little "feature" ended up costing me hours of frustration, as the encoding information would just "vanish" between transfer and I kept scratching my head as to why manually created utf8 files were not behaving as they should.
up
0
ronen at greyzone dot com
12 years ago
The following function will utf-8 encode unicode entities &#nnn(nn); with n={0..9}

/**
* takes a string of unicode entities and converts it to a utf-8 encoded string
* each unicode entitiy has the form &#nnn(nn); n={0..9} and can be displayed by utf-8 supporting
* browsers.  Ascii will not be modified.
* @param $source string of unicode entities [STRING]
* @return a utf-8 encoded string [STRING]
* @access public
*/
function utf8Encode ($source) {
    $utf8Str = '';
    $entityArray = explode ("&#", $source);
    $size = count ($entityArray);
    for ($i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
        $subStr = $entityArray[$i];
        $nonEntity = strstr ($subStr, ';');
        if ($nonEntity !== false) {
            $unicode = intval (substr ($subStr, 0, (strpos ($subStr, ';') + 1)));
            // determine how many chars are needed to reprsent this unicode char
            if ($unicode < 128) {
                $utf8Substring = chr ($unicode);
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 128 && $unicode < 2048) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 11, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 5);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 5);
           
                $char1 = chr (192 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2;
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 2048 && $unicode < 65536) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 16, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 4);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 4, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 10);
           
                $char1 = chr (224 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3;
            }
            else {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 21, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 3);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 3, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 9, 6);
                $binPart4 = substr ($binVal, 15);
       
                $char1 = chr (240 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $char4 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart4));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3 . $char4;
            }
           
            if (strlen ($nonEntity) > 1)
                $nonEntity = substr ($nonEntity, 1); // chop the first char (';')
            else
                $nonEntity = '';

            $utf8Str .= $utf8Substring . $nonEntity;
        }
        else {
            $utf8Str .= $subStr;
        }
    }

    return $utf8Str;
}
       
Ronen.
up
-1
genert at adsuk dot com
7 years ago
If you encoded data with utf8_encode function and you would like to decode it in javascript use library found here: http://www.webtoolkit.info/. There is encoder too.
up
-1
Anonymous
7 years ago
In reply to Cundle:

Note: The BOM is completely unnecessary in UTF-8. UTF-8 is interpreted the same way regardless of endianness, e.g. Λ (U+039B, GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA) is represented as the octets 0xCE, 0x9B, always in that order.

Extra note: UTF-16 and UCS-2 are different. The same letter would be encoded as 0x03 0x9B on big-endian (e.g. Motorola) architecture, but 0x9B 0x03 on little-endian (e.g Intel) architecture.

But in any case, there's nothing wrong with putting a BOM at the beginning of a UTF-8 encoded file. It is just treated as U+FEFF Zero Width No-Break Space.
up
-1
migueldiaz at gennio dot com
8 years ago
Here's my function to know if one string is encoded in UTF8.

If we encode in UTF8 a string or text file that is already encoded in UTF8, it's expected to find the character '' ( ALT+159)  in the final string.

<?php

function isUTF8($string)
{
   
$string_utf8 = utf8_encode($string);
    if(
strpos($string_utf8,"",0) !== false ) // "" is ALT+159
        
return true// the original string was utf8
   
else
         return
false; // otherwise
}

?>

regards
Miguel Daz
up
-1
http://iubito.free.fr
9 years ago
Here's a function I made to know if one string or textfile is already encoded in UTF8 :

<?php
/**
* Returns <kbd>true</kbd> if the string or array of string is encoded in UTF8.
*
* Example of use. If you want to know if a file is saved in UTF8 format :
* <code> $array = file('one file.txt');
* $isUTF8 = isUTF8($array);
* if (!$isUTF8) --> we need to apply utf8_encode() to be in UTF8
* else --> we are in UTF8 :)
* </code>
* @param mixed A string, or an array from a file() function.
* @return boolean
*/
function isUTF8($string)
{
    if (
is_array($string))
    {
       
$enc = implode('', $string);
        return @!((
ord($enc[0]) != 239) && (ord($enc[1]) != 187) && (ord($enc[2]) != 191));
    }
    else
    {
        return (
utf8_encode(utf8_decode($string)) == $string);
    }   
}
?>
up
-1
Aidan Kehoe <php-manual at parhasard dot net>
10 years ago
Here's some code that addresses the issue that Steven describes in the previous comment;

<?php

/* This structure encodes the difference between ISO-8859-1 and Windows-1252,
   as a map from the UTF-8 encoding of some ISO-8859-1 control characters to
   the UTF-8 encoding of the non-control characters that Windows-1252 places
   at the equivalent code points. */

$cp1252_map = array(
   
"\xc2\x80" => "\xe2\x82\xac", /* EURO SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x82" => "\xe2\x80\x9a", /* SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x83" => "\xc6\x92",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK */
   
"\xc2\x84" => "\xe2\x80\x9e", /* DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x85" => "\xe2\x80\xa6", /* HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS */
   
"\xc2\x86" => "\xe2\x80\xa0", /* DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x87" => "\xe2\x80\xa1", /* DOUBLE DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x88" => "\xcb\x86",     /* MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT */
   
"\xc2\x89" => "\xe2\x80\xb0", /* PER MILLE SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x8a" => "\xc5\xa0",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x8b" => "\xe2\x80\xb9", /* SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION */
   
"\xc2\x8c" => "\xc5\x92",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x8e" => "\xc5\xbd",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x91" => "\xe2\x80\x98", /* LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x92" => "\xe2\x80\x99", /* RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x93" => "\xe2\x80\x9c", /* LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x94" => "\xe2\x80\x9d", /* RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x95" => "\xe2\x80\xa2", /* BULLET */
   
"\xc2\x96" => "\xe2\x80\x93", /* EN DASH */
   
"\xc2\x97" => "\xe2\x80\x94", /* EM DASH */

   
"\xc2\x98" => "\xcb\x9c",     /* SMALL TILDE */
   
"\xc2\x99" => "\xe2\x84\xa2", /* TRADE MARK SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x9a" => "\xc5\xa1",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9b" => "\xe2\x80\xba", /* SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION*/
   
"\xc2\x9c" => "\xc5\x93",     /* LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x9e" => "\xc5\xbe",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9f" => "\xc5\xb8"      /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS*/
);

function
cp1252_to_utf8($str) {
        global
$cp1252_map;
        return 
strtr(utf8_encode($str), $cp1252_map);
}

?>
up
-2
hillar dot petersen at gmail dot com
7 years ago
In addition to my previous post. If your values are already in utf-8 maybe you want to utf8_encode array keys only. This will do it:

<?php
/**
* (Recursively) utf8_encode all array keys.
*
* @param array $array
* @return array with utf8_encoded keys
*/

function utf8_encode_array_keys($array)
{
 
$array_type = array_type($array);

  if (
$array_type == "map")
  {
   
$result_array = array();

    foreach(
$array as $key => $value)
    {
      if (
is_array($value))
      {
       
// recursion
       
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode_array_keys($value);
      }
      else
      {
       
// value is not an array, no recursion
       
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = $value;
      }
    }
   
    return
$result_array;
  }

  else if (
$array_type == "vector")
  {
   
// do not encode anything, just follow the value if it is an array
   
$result_array = array();
   
    foreach (
$array as $key => $value)
    {
      if (
is_array($value))
      {
       
// recursion
       
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode_array_keys($value);
      }
      else
      {
       
// value is not an array, no recursion
       
$result_array[$key] = $value;
      }
    }
   
    return
$result_array;
  }

  return
false;     // argument is not an array, return false
}
?>

Also note that both this operation (with keys only) and the operation with both keys and values can be reversed by replacing "encode" by "decode".
up
-1
lars(at)ioflux(dot)net
12 years ago
This will also do the job for those who're interested:

<?

function utf8toiso8859($string)
{   
 
$returns = "";
 
$UTF8len = array(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6);
 
$pos = 0;
 
$antal = strlen($string);
 
  do
  {
   
$c = ord($string[$pos]);
   
$len = $UTF8len[($c >> 2) & 0x3F];
    switch (
$len)
    {
      case
6:
       
$u = $c & 0x01;
        break;
      case
5:
       
$u = $c & 0x03;
        break;
      case
4:
       
$u = $c & 0x07;
        break;
      case
3:
       
$u = $c & 0x0F;
        break;
      case
2:
       
$u = $c & 0x1F;
        break;
      case
1:
       
$u = $c & 0x7F;
        break;
      case
0/* unexpected start of a new character */
       
$u = $c & 0x3F;
       
$len = 5;
        break;
    }
    while (--
$len && (++$pos < $antal && $c =
ord($string[$pos])))
    {
      if ((
$c & 0xC0) == 0x80)
       
$u = ($u << 6) | ($c & 0x3F);
      else
      {
/* unexpected start of a new character */
       
$pos--;
        break;
      }
    }
    if (
$u <= 0xFF)
     
$returns .= chr($u);
    else
     
$returns .= '?';
  } while (++
$pos < $antal);
  return
$returns;
}

?>
up
-1
renardo13 at free dot fr
6 years ago
another nice way to implement an isUTF8 function ...

<?php

function isUTF8($string)
{
    return (
utf8_encode(utf8_decode($string)) == $string);
}

?>
up
-1
squeegee
5 years ago
I think this is a reasonable port of Perl's Encoding::FixLatin by Grant McLean, which converts a string with mixed encodings (ASCII, ISO-8859-1, CP1252, and UTF-8) to UTF-8.

<?php

function init_byte_map(){
  global
$byte_map;
  for(
$x=128;$x<256;++$x){
   
$byte_map[chr($x)]=utf8_encode(chr($x));
  }
 
$cp1252_map=array(
   
"\x80"=>"\xE2\x82\xAC",    // EURO SIGN
   
"\x82" => "\xE2\x80\x9A"// SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x83" => "\xC6\x92",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK
   
"\x84" => "\xE2\x80\x9E"// DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x85" => "\xE2\x80\xA6"// HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
   
"\x86" => "\xE2\x80\xA0"// DAGGER
   
"\x87" => "\xE2\x80\xA1"// DOUBLE DAGGER
   
"\x88" => "\xCB\x86",      // MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
   
"\x89" => "\xE2\x80\xB0"// PER MILLE SIGN
   
"\x8A" => "\xC5\xA0",      // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON
   
"\x8B" => "\xE2\x80\xB9"// SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x8C" => "\xC5\x92",      // LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE
   
"\x8E" => "\xC5\xBD",      // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON
   
"\x91" => "\xE2\x80\x98"// LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x92" => "\xE2\x80\x99"// RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x93" => "\xE2\x80\x9C"// LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x94" => "\xE2\x80\x9D"// RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x95" => "\xE2\x80\xA2"// BULLET
   
"\x96" => "\xE2\x80\x93"// EN DASH
   
"\x97" => "\xE2\x80\x94"// EM DASH
   
"\x98" => "\xCB\x9C",      // SMALL TILDE
   
"\x99" => "\xE2\x84\xA2"// TRADE MARK SIGN
   
"\x9A" => "\xC5\xA1",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON
   
"\x9B" => "\xE2\x80\xBA"// SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x9C" => "\xC5\x93",      // LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE
   
"\x9E" => "\xC5\xBE",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON
   
"\x9F" => "\xC5\xB8"       // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS
 
);
  foreach(
$cp1252_map as $k=>$v){
   
$byte_map[$k]=$v;
  }
}

function
fix_latin($instr){
  if(
mb_check_encoding($instr,'UTF-8'))return $instr; // no need for the rest if it's all valid UTF-8 already
 
global $nibble_good_chars,$byte_map;
 
$outstr='';
 
$char='';
 
$rest='';
  while((
strlen($instr))>0){
    if(
1==preg_match($nibble_good_chars,$input,$match)){
     
$char=$match[1];
     
$rest=$match[2];
     
$outstr.=$char;
    }elseif(
1==preg_match('@^(.)(.*)$@s',$input,$match)){
     
$char=$match[1];
     
$rest=$match[2];
     
$outstr.=$byte_map[$char];
    }
   
$instr=$rest;
  }
  return
$outstr;
}

$byte_map=array();
init_byte_map();
$ascii_char='[\x00-\x7F]';
$cont_byte='[\x80-\xBF]';
$utf8_2='[\xC0-\xDF]'.$cont_byte;
$utf8_3='[\xE0-\xEF]'.$cont_byte.'{2}';
$utf8_4='[\xF0-\xF7]'.$cont_byte.'{3}';
$utf8_5='[\xF8-\xFB]'.$cont_byte.'{4}';
$nibble_good_chars = "@^($ascii_char+|$utf8_2|$utf8_3|$utf8_4|$utf8_5)(.*)$@s";

?>

Then just call fix_latin wherever you need it.
up
-1
Julio Cesar
5 years ago
With This Script you can convert a lot of files in
subfolders and convert to UTF8 without problems!

I thought about that when I was converting an eclipse
Project to UTF-8 and I loose all the Accentuation O.o

But with this script YOU WILL NOT! ;-)

I Make this based on Aidan Kehoe's Script and webmaster at
asylum-et dot com of http://www.php.net/scandir:

<?php
ini_set
("implicit_flush", "on");
ini_set("max_execution_time", 0);
ini_set("register_argc_argv", "on");
ini_set("html_errors", "Off");

function
cp1252_to_utf8($str) {
   
$cp1252_map = array ("\xc2\x80" => "\xe2\x82\xac",
   
"\xc2\x82" => "\xe2\x80\x9a",
   
"\xc2\x83" => "\xc6\x92",    
   
"\xc2\x84" => "\xe2\x80\x9e",
   
"\xc2\x85" => "\xe2\x80\xa6",
   
"\xc2\x86" => "\xe2\x80\xa0",
   
"\xc2\x87" => "\xe2\x80\xa1",
   
"\xc2\x88" => "\xcb\x86",
   
"\xc2\x89" => "\xe2\x80\xb0",
   
"\xc2\x8a" => "\xc5\xa0",
   
"\xc2\x8b" => "\xe2\x80\xb9",
   
"\xc2\x8c" => "\xc5\x92",
   
"\xc2\x8e" => "\xc5\xbd",
   
"\xc2\x91" => "\xe2\x80\x98",
   
"\xc2\x92" => "\xe2\x80\x99",
   
"\xc2\x93" => "\xe2\x80\x9c",
   
"\xc2\x94" => "\xe2\x80\x9d",
   
"\xc2\x95" => "\xe2\x80\xa2",
   
"\xc2\x96" => "\xe2\x80\x93",
   
"\xc2\x97" => "\xe2\x80\x94",

   
"\xc2\x98" => "\xcb\x9c",
   
"\xc2\x99" => "\xe2\x84\xa2",
   
"\xc2\x9a" => "\xc5\xa1",
   
"\xc2\x9b" => "\xe2\x80\xba",
   
"\xc2\x9c" => "\xc5\x93",
   
"\xc2\x9e" => "\xc5\xbe",
   
"\xc2\x9f" => "\xc5\xb8"
);
    return
strtr ( utf8_encode ( $str ), $cp1252_map );
}
function
rscandir($base="", &$data=array()) {

 
$array = array_diff(scandir($base), array(".", ".."));
 
  foreach(
$array as $value) :

    if (
is_dir($base.$value)) :
     
//$data[] = $base.$value."/";
     
$data = rscandir($base.$value."/", $data);
    
    elseif (
is_file($base.$value) &&
!
eregi(".jpg|.gif|.png|.ttf|.dataModel|.wsdlDataModel
|.project|.jsdtscope|.prefs|.name|.container|
.exe|.bat|.cmd|.src|.dll|.ini|.swf|.fla|.bmp\$"
,
$value)) : /* where you put the unwanted extensions  */
   
echo "Converting to UTF8 " . $base.$value . "\r\n"
  
file_put_contents(
       
$base.$value,
           
cp1252_to_utf8(
           
file_get_contents($base.$value)));

    
    endif;
  
  endforeach;

  return
$data;

}
echo
"Type a Folder (With a Slash in end): ";
$folder = trim(fgets(STDIN));

rscandir($folder);

?>

You can put this on windows Dir and put a Batch like this:

@echo off
php -n C:\windows\ConvertUTF8.php
pause

So you can convert your files from any where, just type on
Execute Command Like: ConvertFilesToUTF8

I think this will help everyone! Enjoy ;-)

P.s: I remove the comments becouse the wordwrap
up
-1
nikooo adog bk adot ru - Nickolaz
7 years ago
You can use this simple code to convert win-1251 into Unicode.

    function rus2uni($str,$isTo = true)
    {
        $arr = array('ё'=>'&#x451;','Ё'=>'&#x401;');
        for($i=192;$i<256;$i++)
            $arr[chr($i)] = '&#x4'.dechex($i-176).';';
        $str =preg_replace(array('@([а-я]) @i','@ ([а-я])@i'),array('$1&#x0a0;','&#x0a0;$1'),$str);
        return strtr($str,$isTo?$arr:array_flip($arr));
    }

That is useful for xml_parser (to parse windows-1251 files like utf-8).
up
-3
hmdker at gmail dot com
6 years ago
Here's my is_utf8 function, to detect valid UTF-8 text.

<?php
function is_utf8($str) {
   
$c=0; $b=0;
   
$bits=0;
   
$len=strlen($str);
    for(
$i=0; $i<$len; $i++){
       
$c=ord($str[$i]);
        if (
$c >= 128) {
            if((
$c >= 254)) return false;
            elseif(
$c >= 252) $bits=6;
            elseif(
$c >= 248) $bits=5;
            elseif(
$c >= 240) $bits=4;
            elseif(
$c >= 224) $bits=3;
            elseif(
$c >= 192) $bits=2;
            else return
false;
            if((
$i+$bits) > $len) return false;
            while(
$bits > 1){
               
$i++;
               
$b=ord($str[$i]);
                if(
$b < 128 || $b > 191) return false;
               
$bits--;
            }
        }
    }
    return
true;
}

?>

[NOTE BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Contains a bugfix supplied by "svenmika" on 09-JUL-09 with the following note: "A value of exactly 128 (binary 10000000) in the first byte of a character is invalid."]
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