strncmp

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

strncmp Confronto tra stringhe sui primi n caratteri, sicuro con i dati binari

Descrizione

int strncmp ( string $str1 , string $str2 , int $len )

Questa funzione è simile a strcmp(), con la differenza che si può specificare il limite superiore del numero di caratteri (len) per ciascuna stringa, da utilizzare per il confronto.

Restituisce < 0 se str1 è minore di str2; > 0 se str1 è maggiore di str2, e 0 se sono uguali.

Nota: questo confronto distingue tra lettere minuscole e maiuscole.

Vedere anche ereg(), strncasecmp(), strcasecmp(), substr(), stristr(), strcmp() e strstr().

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User Contributed Notes 5 notes

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9
elloromtz at gmail dot com
7 years ago
if length is 0 regardless what the two strings are, it will return 0

<?php
strncmp
("xybc","a3234",0); // 0
strncmp("blah123","hohoho", 0); //0
?>
up
4
samy
7 months ago
I just want to highlight that (at least on php7), when testing for the existence of a string in the beginning of another string you should consider using substr  or strpos (if performances is an issue).

Here is a small benchmark (for what it's worth):
<?php
$n
= 'abcd';
$l = strlen($n);
$haystack0 = base64_encode(random_bytes(128));

//heat
$r = 1;
for (
$i = 0; $i < 100000000; $i++)
   
$r += $r * $r % 10000;

//tests
$k = 30000000;
$res = array();
foreach (array(
'found' => $n . $haystack0, 'not-found' => strrev($n) . $haystack0) as $f => $haystack) {
   
$m = microtime(true);
    for (
$i = 0; $i < $k; $i++)
        !
strncmp($haystack, $n, $l) && $r++;
   
$res["strncmp-$f"] = -$m + ($m = microtime(true));

    for (
$i = 0; $i < $k; $i++)
        (
strpos($haystack, $n) === 0) && $r++;
   
$res["strpos-$f"] = -$m + ($m = microtime(true));

    for (
$i = 0; $i < $k; $i++)
        (
substr($haystack, 0, $l) === $n) && $r++;
   
$res["substr-$f"] = microtime(true) - $m;
}

//print
asort($res);
print_r($res);
echo
"\n$r"; // makes sure no auto-optimization occurs
?>

This outputs:
<?php /*
    [strpos-found]        => 1.3313138484955
    [substr-not-found]    => 1.4832630157471
    [substr-found]        => 1.6976611614227
    [strpos-not-found]    => 2.0043320655823
    [strncmp-not-found]    => 2.0969619750977
    [strncmp-found]        => 2.3616981506348
*/
?>
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6
codeguru at crazyprogrammer dot cba dot pl
9 years ago
I ran the following experiment to compare arrays.

1 st - using (substr($key,0,5 == "HTTP_") & 2 nd - using (!strncmp($key, 'HTTP_', 5))

I wanted to work out the fastest way to get the first few characters from a array

BENCHMARK ITERATION RESULT IS:
if (substr($key,0,5 == "HTTP_").... -   0,000481s
if (!strncmp($key, 'HTTP_', 5)).... -     0,000405s

strncmp() is 20% faster than substr() :D

<?php
// SAMPLE FUNCTION
function strncmp_match($arr)
{
foreach (
$arr as $key => $val)
    {
   
//if (substr($key,0,5 == "HTTP_")
   
if (!strncmp($key, 'HTTP_', 5))   
        {
   
$out[$key] = $val;
        }
    }
return
$out;
}

// EXAMPLE USE
?><pre><?php
print_r
(strncmp_match($_SERVER));
?></pre>

will display code like this:

Array
(
    [HTTP_ACCEPT] => XXX
    [HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE] => pl
    [HTTP_UA_CPU] => x64
    [HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING] => gzip, deflate
    [HTTP_USER_AGENT] => Mozilla/4.0
                                    (compatible; MSIE 7.0;
                                     Windows NT 5.1;
                                    .NET CLR 1.1.4322;
                                    .NET CLR 2.0.50727)
    [HTTP_HOST] => XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX
    [HTTP_CONNECTION] => Keep-Alive
    [HTTP_COOKIE] => __utma=XX;__utmz=XX.utmccn=(direct)|utmcsr=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)
)
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3
bobvin at pillars dot net
6 years ago
For checking matches at the beginning of a short string, strpos() is about 15% faster than strncmp().

Here's a benchmark program to prove it:

<?php
$haystack
= "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
$needles = array('abc', 'xyz', '123');
foreach (
$needles as $needle) {
 
$times['strncmp'][$needle] = -microtime(true);
  for (
$i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) {
   
$result = strncmp($haystack, $needle, 3) === 0;
  }
 
$times['strncmp'][$needle] += microtime(true);
}
foreach (
$needles as $needle) {
 
$times['strpos'][$needle] = -microtime(true);
  for (
$i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) {
   
$result = strpos($haystack, $needle) === 0;
  }
 
$times['strpos'][$needle] += microtime(true);
}
var_export($times);
?>
up
1
salehrezq at gmail dot com
1 year ago
A note not included in the documentation:

int strcmp ( string $str1 , string $str2 )

Returns < 0 if str1 is less than str2; > 0 if str1 is greater than str2, and 0 if they are equal.

My addendum:
If str1 and str2 are not equal, and str1 is a sub-string of str2 or vise versa. The returned int value will be negative or positive indicating how many characters the difference is between the two strings in absolute terms.

Example:

<?php
$str1
= "phpaaa";
$str2 = "php";

echo
strcmp($str1, $str2); // 3
?>

since str2 = "php" is a sub-string of str1 = "phpaaa" and "phpaaa" is greater than "php" the returned value is positive and is 3 indicating how many characters the difference is between the two strings.

If you replace the value of str1 with str2 the result will be -3 (negative) but still indicates the absolute difference which is 3
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